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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year endedJune 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to             
Commission file number 1-06089


H&R Block, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Missouri44-0607856
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
One H&R Block Way, Kansas City, Missouri 64105
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(816) 854-3000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, without par valueHRBNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Stock, without par value
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer      Accelerated filer      Non-accelerated filer       Smaller reporting company  Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes No
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant's Common Stock (all voting stock) held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the price at which the stock was sold on December 30, 2022, was $5,496,269,711.
Number of shares of the registrant's Common Stock, without par value, outstanding on July 31, 2023: 146,996,414.
Documents incorporated by reference
The definitive proxy statement for the registrant's 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed no later than 120 days after June 30, 2023, is incorporated by reference in Part III to the extent described therein.



2023 FORM 10-K AND ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS





INTRODUCTION
"H&R Block," "the Company," "we," "our" and "us" are used interchangeably to refer to H&R Block, Inc., to H&R Block, Inc. and its subsidiaries, or to H&R Block, Inc.'s operating subsidiaries, as appropriate to the context.
Specified portions of our proxy statement are "incorporated by reference" in response to certain items. Our proxy statement will be made available to shareholders no later than 120 days after June 30, 2023, and will also be available on our website at www.hrblock.com.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report and other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) may contain forward-looking statements. In addition, our senior management may make forward-looking statements orally to analysts, investors, the media and others. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They often include words or variation of words such as "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "plans," "believes," "commits," "seeks," "estimates," "projects," "forecasts," "targets," "would," "will," "should," "could," "may" or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements provide management's current expectations or predictions of future conditions, events or results. All statements that address operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future are forward-looking statements. They may include estimates of revenues, client trajectory, income, effective tax rate, earnings per share, cost savings, capital expenditures, dividends, share repurchases, liquidity, capital structure, market share, industry volumes or other financial items, descriptions of management's plans or objectives for future operations, services or products, or descriptions of assumptions underlying any of the above. They may also include the expected impact of external events beyond the Company's control, such as outbreaks of infectious disease (including the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic), severe weather events, natural or manmade disasters, or changes in the regulatory environment in which we operate.
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made and reflect the Company's good faith beliefs, assumptions and expectations, but they are not guarantees of future performance or events. Furthermore, the Company disclaims any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions, factors, or expectations, new information, data or methods, future events or other changes, except as required by law.
By their nature, forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, a variety of economic, competitive, operational and regulatory factors, many of which are beyond the Company's control. Investors should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors and, consequently, should not consider any such list to be a complete set of all potential risks or uncertainties.
Details about risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could affect various aspects of our business are included throughout this Form 10-K. Investors should carefully consider all of these risks, and should pay particular attention to Item 1A, Risk Factors, and Item 7 under "Critical Accounting Estimates" of this Form 10-K.





H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
1


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
H&R Block provides help and inspires confidence in its clients and communities everywhere through global tax preparation services, financial products, and small business solutions. We blend digital innovation with human expertise and care to help people get the best outcome at tax time and also be better with money by using our mobile banking app, Spruce℠.
H&R Block, Inc. was organized as a corporation in 1955 under the laws of the State of Missouri. A complete list of our subsidiaries as of June 30, 2023 can be found in Exhibit 21.

During fiscal year 2023, we prepared
20.1 million U.S. tax returns(1)
which contributed to our consolidated revenues of
$3.5 billion,
net income from continuing operations of
$561.8 million,
EBITDA(2) from continuing operations of
$914.7 million,
and diluted EPS from continuing operations of
$3.56 per share.
We repurchased
14.6 million shares of our common stock,
and declared dividends of
$1.16 per share,
which was an increase of
$0.08, or 7.4%, per share from the prior year.
(1) U.S. Tax returns prepared includes tax returns prepared in U.S. company and franchise office locations, virtually,
and through our DIY solutions.
(2) See "Non-GAAP Financial Information" in Item 7 for a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT INDUSTRY SEGMENTS
We report a single segment that includes all of our continuing operations, which includes tax preparation, small business services, and financial services and products. See discussion below.
During fiscal year 2021, we introduced Block Horizons, our five year strategy that will leverage our human expertise and technological infrastructure to deliver growth by driving tax solution innovation, helping small businesses to thrive, and support individuals where they need the most help with money.
Small Business
During fiscal year 2023 small business assisted tax improved client satisfaction metrics, and continued to focus on helping small business clients beyond tax. We launched an entity formation tool to allow small business customers to take advantage of benefits that may come from incorporating, and while early, our bookkeeping and payroll services are gaining traction. Wave is our one-stop money management platform for small business owners. Our top two priorities at Wave are accelerating revenue growth and driving long term profitability.
Financial Products
In January 2023, we introduced SpruceSM, our mobile banking platform, to our assisted clients for the first time. Since the launch of SpruceSM through June 30, 2023, we have had 300 thousand signups and $334 million dollars in customer deposits. SpruceSM is committed to helping clients be better with money, and we are seeing progress towards that goal. During the year, we launched new features enabling clients to easily set up direct deposit within the app with just a few clicks and build healthy spending habits. Thousands of clients have engaged with the tools within the app, and feedback indicates that features give them the visibility and control they have been missing in their financial lives. From here, we are working to improve how we acquire clients both in and out of the tax season.
Block Experience
Block Experience is all about blending technology and digital tools with human expertise and care to serve clients however they want to be served: fully virtual to fully in person and everything in between. We have been successful in driving digital adoption by leveraging the MyBlock app features such as uploading documents, approving returns online, and utilizing virtual chat. This year, more than 30% of assisted clients used a virtual tool during their tax preparation experience within our company-owned offices.
We provide assisted and do-it-yourself (DIY) tax return preparation solutions through multiple channels (including in-person, online and mobile applications, virtual, and desktop software) and distribute H&R Block-branded services and products, including those of our bank partners, to the general public primarily in the U.S., Canada and Australia. We also offer small business financial solutions through our company-owned and franchise offices and online through Wave. Major revenue sources include fees earned for tax preparation via our assisted and DIY channels, royalties from franchisees, and fees from related services and products.
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TAX PREPARATION SERVICES
Assisted income tax return preparation and related services are provided by tax professionals via a system of retail offices operated directly by us or our franchisees. These tax professionals provide assistance to our clients either in person or virtually in a number of ways. Clients can come into an office, digitally "drop off" their documents for their tax professional, approve their return online, have a tax professional review a return they prepared themselves through Tax Pro Review or get their questions answered as they complete their own return through Online Assist.
Our online software may be accessed through our website at www.hrblock.com or in a mobile application, while our desktop software may be purchased online and through third-party retail stores.
Assisted tax returns are covered by our 100% accuracy guarantee, whereby we will reimburse a client for penalties and interest attributable to an H&R Block error on a tax return. DIY tax returns are covered by our 100% accuracy guarantee, whereby we will reimburse a client up to a maximum of $10,000 if our software makes an arithmetic error that results in payment of penalties and/or interest to the respective taxing authority that the client would otherwise not have been required to pay.
We offer franchises as a way to expand our presence in certain geographic areas. In the U.S., our franchisees pay us approximately 30% of gross tax return preparation and related service revenues as a franchise royalty.
OTHER OFFERINGS
During fiscal year 2023, we also offered U.S. clients a number of additional services, including Refund Transfers (RT), our Peace of Mind® Extended Service Plan (POM), H&R Block Emerald Prepaid Mastercard® (Emerald Card®), H&R Block Emerald Advance® Lines of Credit (EA), Tax Identity Shield® (TIS), Refund Advances (RA), and small business financial solutions. For our Canadian clients, we also offer POM, H&R Block's Instant RefundSM, H&R Block Pay With Refund®, and small business financial solutions.
Refund Transfers. RTs enable clients to receive their tax refunds by their chosen method of disbursement and include a feature enabling clients to deduct tax preparation and related fees from their tax refunds. Depending on circumstances, clients may choose to receive their RT proceeds by a load to their Emerald Card®, a deposit to their Spruce Spending Account, by receiving a check or by direct deposit to an existing account. RTs are available to U.S. clients and are frequently obtained by those who: (1) do not have bank accounts into which the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) can direct deposit their refunds; (2) like the convenience and benefits of a temporary account for receipt of their refund; and/or (3) prefer to have their tax preparation fees paid directly out of their refunds. RTs are offered through our relationship with our bank partner. We offer a similar program, H&R Block Pay With Refund®, to our Canadian clients through a Canadian chartered bank.
Peace of Mind® Extended Service Plan. We offer POM to U.S. and Canadian clients who obtain assisted tax preparation services, whereby we (1) represent our clients if they are audited by a taxing authority, and (2) assume the cost, subject to certain limits, of additional taxes owed by a client resulting from errors attributable to H&R Block. The additional taxes paid under POM have a cumulative limit of $6,000 for U.S. clients and $3,000 CAD for Canadian clients with respect to the federal, state/provincial and local tax returns we prepared for applicable clients during the taxable year protected by POM.
H&R Block Emerald Prepaid Mastercard®. The Emerald Card® enables clients to receive their tax refunds from the IRS directly on a prepaid debit card, or to direct RT, EA or RA proceeds to the card. The card can be used for everyday purchases, bill payments and ATM withdrawals anywhere Debit Mastercard® (Mastercard is a registered trademark of Mastercard International Incorporated) is accepted. Additional funds can be added to the card year-round, such as through direct deposit or at participating retail reload providers, and the Emerald Card® can be added to clients' mobile wallets. We distribute the Emerald Card® issued by our bank partner.
H&R Block Emerald Advance® Lines of Credit. EAs are lines of credit offered to clients in our offices, from mid-November through mid-January, in amounts up to $1,000. If the borrower meets certain criteria as agreed in the loan terms, the line of credit can be utilized year-round. In addition to the required monthly payments, borrowers
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


may elect to pay down balances on EAs with their tax refunds. These lines of credit are offered by our bank partner, and we subsequently purchase a participation interest in all EAs originated by our bank partner.
Tax Identity Shield®. Our TIS program offers clients assistance in helping protect their tax identity and access to services to help restore their tax identity, if necessary. Protection services include a daily scan of the dark web for personal information, a monthly scan for the client's social security number in credit header data, notifying clients if their information is detected on a tax return filed through H&R Block, and obtaining additional IRS identity protections when eligible.
Refund Advance Loans. RAs are interest-free loans offered by our bank partner, which are available to eligible U.S. assisted clients in company-owned and participating franchise locations, including virtual clients. In tax season 2023, RAs were offered in amounts of $250, $500, $750, $1,250 and $3,500, based on client eligibility as determined by our bank partner.
H&R Block's Instant RefundSM. Our Canadian operations advance refunds due to certain clients from the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), for a fee. The fee charged for this service is mandated by federal legislation which is administered by the CRA. The client assigns to us the full amount of the tax refund to be issued by the CRA and the refund amount is then sent by the CRA directly to us.
Small Business Financial Solutions. Our Block Advisors certified tax professionals provide small businesses with financial expertise in taxes, bookkeeping and payroll through our office network. Wave provides small business owners with an online solution to manage their finances, including payment processing, payroll and bookkeeping services.
SEASONALITY OF BUSINESS
Because the majority of our clients file their tax returns during the period from February through April in a typical year, a substantial majority of our revenues from income tax return preparation and related services and products are earned during this period. As a result, we generally operate at a loss through the first two quarters of our fiscal year.
COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS
We provide assisted and DIY tax preparation services and products, as well as small business financial solutions, and face substantial competition in and across each category from tax return preparation firms and software providers, accounting firms, independent tax preparers, and certified public accountants.
We are one of the largest providers of tax return preparation solutions and electronic filing services in the U.S., Canada, and Australia with 23.4 million returns filed by or through H&R Block in fiscal year 2023.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION
Our business is subject to various forms of government regulation, including U.S. Federal and state tax preparer regulations, financial consumer protection and privacy regulations, state regulations, franchise regulations and foreign regulations. See further discussion of these items in our Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 7 under "Regulatory Environment" of this Form 10-K.
HUMAN CAPITAL
Fulfilling our purpose extends to helping and inspiring confidence in our associates. We are committed to our associates’ total well-being—physical, mental, financial, career, team and community. Together, when we balance these components, we achieve personal, team and organizational strength. These commitments extend to both our year-round and seasonal associates.
Associates. We had approximately 4,000 regular full-time associates as of June 30, 2023. Our business is dependent on the availability of a seasonal workforce, including tax professionals, and our ability to hire, train, and supervise these associates. The highest number of persons we employed during the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, including seasonal associates, was approximately 74,400.
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5


Associate Engagement. We administer an annual survey to all associates to better understand their levels of engagement and identify areas where we can improve. In previous years, we compared our scores against a global benchmark, which is the average of thousands of companies. This year we aspirationally changed our benchmark from the global benchmark to the top 25th percentile of the global benchmark to challenge our associates and leaders and to yield reports that are easier for leaders to identify opportunities to take action. Across the company, over half of culture and engagement questions measured were at or above the top 25th percentile of the global benchmark. We are pleased with our overall employee satisfaction score which continues on an upward trend. This year, individual leaders at all levels have begun formally creating and monitoring culture and engagement-related goals to continue our upward trajectory.
Compensation and Benefits. Our compensation programs are designed to attract and retain top talent that act boldly, demand high standards, crave tough problems and value winning as a team. Our equitable and comprehensive benefits offerings provide access to benefits to help both regular and seasonal associates plan for the health and security of their families. H&R Block provides comprehensive medical insurance to our associates, and extends the opportunity for medical insurance to our seasonal workforce who satisfy the eligibility guidelines of the Affordable Care Act. Subject to meeting eligibility requirements, associates can also choose to participate in the H&R Block Retirement Savings Plan 401(k) and Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
Training and Development. We offer a variety of development opportunities for our associates, including in-person classes, online courses, assessments, and a learning library. Our tax professionals receive extensive annual tax training on topics including recent tax code changes and filing practices, and we offer additional education opportunities for tax professionals to enhance their knowledge and skills. In preparation for the upcoming tax season, our tax professionals receive training on H&R Block products, soft skills and tax office best practices.
Diversity, Inclusion and Belonging. We continually evaluate our management approaches to improving diversity and inclusion, which includes looking at how we can provide a sense of belonging in the workplace for our associates. We believe taking care of our associates significantly increases their job satisfaction and is instrumental to the company’s ongoing success. We materialized these efforts through our Belonging@Block program which is a council of associates from multiple departments across the organization with the responsibility to represent and improve our diverse and inclusive culture. We have continued to grow our membership in diversity and inclusion groups focusing on LGBTQ+, neurodiversity, young professionals, veterans, women, and Black associates. We have also extended our diversity and inclusion efforts to support supplier diversity, enhancement of our Racial Equity Action Plan, and the development of a program that supports technology talent diversity. We also remain committed to building a Connected Culture—one in which trust, care, and connections are how we work together as we continue to create an environment where everyone feels safe to bring their authentic self to work every day and feels like they belong as part of a larger team. Our people are the number one enabler for living our Purpose and we value our associates by offering various talent development opportunities, tax training and support, and regularly assessing compensation policies and data to ensure pay equity. To thank our associates and protect against heightened stress, burnout, and uncertainty, we have implemented ‘The Annual Reboot,’ a paid week of time off offered during the first week of July to disconnect and recharge. Because of our efforts to foster a culture of belonging, we are consistently recognized as a top employer in many different categories.
SERVICE MARKS AND TRADEMARKS
We have made a practice of offering our services and products under service marks and trademarks and of securing registration for many of these marks in the U.S. and other countries where our services and products are marketed. We consider these service marks and trademarks, in the aggregate, to be of material importance to our business, particularly our businesses providing services and products under the "H&R Block" brand. The initial duration of U.S. federal trademark registrations is 10 years. Most U.S. federal registrations can be renewed perpetually at 10-year intervals and remain enforceable so long as the marks continue to be used.

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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
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Jeffrey J. Jones II, 55, became our President and Chief Executive Officer in October 2017 and was our President and Chief Executive Officer-Designate from August 2017 to October 2017. Before joining the Company, he served as the President of Ridesharing at Uber Technologies, Inc. from October 2016 until March 2017. He also served as the Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of Target Corporation from April 2012 until September 2016.
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Tony G. Bowen, 48, became our Chief Financial Officer in May 2016. Prior to that, he served as our Vice President, U.S. Tax Services Finance from May 2013 through April 2016.
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Kellie J. Logerwell, 53, became our Chief Accounting Officer in July 2016. Prior to that, she served as our Vice President of Corporate and Field Accounting from December 2014 until July 2016 and as our Assistant Controller from December 2010 until December 2014.
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Dara S. Redler, 56, became our Chief Legal Officer in January 2022. Prior to joining the Company, she served as General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for Tilray, Inc. from January 2019 until September 2021. She also held various legal roles of increasing responsibility with The Coca-Cola Company from September 2001 until December 2018.
AVAILABILITY OF REPORTS AND OTHER INFORMATION
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the SEC are available, free of charge, through our website at www.hrblock.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov containing reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers who file electronically with the SEC.
The following corporate governance documents are posted on our website at www.hrblock.com:
The Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of H&R Block, Inc.;
The Amended and Restated Bylaws of H&R Block, Inc.;
The H&R Block, Inc. Corporate Governance Guidelines;
The H&R Block, Inc. Code of Business Ethics and Conduct;
The H&R Block, Inc. Board of Directors Independence Standards;
The H&R Block, Inc. Audit Committee Charter;
The H&R Block, Inc. Compensation Committee Charter;
The H&R Block, Inc. Finance Committee Charter; and
The H&R Block, Inc. Governance and Nominating Committee Charter.
If you would like a printed copy of any of these corporate governance documents, please send your request to H&R Block, Inc., One H&R Block Way, Kansas City, Missouri 64105, Attention: Corporate Secretary.
Information contained on our website does not constitute any part of this report.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business activities expose us to a variety of risks. Identification, monitoring, and management of these risks are essential to the success of our operations and the financial soundness of H&R Block. Senior management and the Board of Directors, acting as a whole and through its committees, take an active role in our risk management process and have delegated certain activities related to the oversight of risk management to the Company's enterprise risk management team and the Enterprise Risk Committee, which is comprised of Vice Presidents of major business and control functions and members of the enterprise risk management team. The Company’s enterprise risk management team, working in coordination with the Enterprise Risk Committee, is responsible for identifying and monitoring risk exposures and related mitigation and leading the continued development of our risk management policies and practices.
An investment in our securities involves risk, including the risk that the value of that investment may decline or that returns on that investment may fall below expectations. There are a number of factors that could cause actual conditions, events, or results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking statements, many of which are beyond management's control or its ability to accurately estimate or predict, or that could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and the value of an investment in our securities. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. We could also be affected by other events, factors, or uncertainties that are presently unknown to us or that we do not currently consider to be significant risks to our business.
STRATEGIC AND INDUSTRY RISKS
Changes in applicable tax laws have had, and may in the future have, a negative impact on the demand for and pricing of our services. Government changes in tax filing or IRS processes may adversely affect our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The U.S. government has in the past made, and may in the future make, changes to the individual income tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, tax regulations, and the rules and procedures for implementing such laws and regulations. In addition, taxing authorities or other relevant governing bodies in various federal, state, local, and foreign jurisdictions in which we operate may change the income tax laws in their respective jurisdictions, and such laws may vary greatly across the various jurisdictions. It is difficult to predict the manner in which future changes to the Internal Revenue Code, tax regulations, and the rules and procedures for implementing such laws and regulations, and state, local, and foreign tax laws may impact us and the tax return preparation industry. Such future changes could decrease the demand or the amount we charge for our services, and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In addition, there are various initiatives from time to time seeking to simplify the tax return preparation filing process or otherwise modify IRS processes. Taxing authorities in various federal, state, local, and foreign jurisdictions in which we operate have also introduced measures seeking to simplify or otherwise modify the preparation and filing of tax returns or the issuance of refunds in their respective jurisdictions. For example, from time to time, U.S. federal and state governments have considered various proposals through which the respective governmental taxing authorities would use taxpayer information provided by employers, financial institutions, and other payers to "pre-populate," prepare and calculate tax returns and distribute them to taxpayers. There are various initiatives from time to time seeking to expedite, reduce, or change the timing of refunds, which could reduce the demand for certain of our services or financial products.
The adoption or expansion of any measures that significantly simplify tax return preparation, or otherwise reduce the need for third-party tax return preparation services or financial products, including governmental encroachment at the U.S. federal and state levels, as well as in foreign jurisdictions, could reduce demand for our services and products and could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


Increased competition for clients could adversely affect our current market share and profitability, and we may not be effective in achieving our strategic and operating objectives.
We face substantial competition throughout our businesses. All categories in the tax return preparation industry are highly competitive, and additional competitors have entered, and in the future may enter, the market to provide tax preparation services or products. In the assisted tax services category, there are a substantial number of tax return preparation firms and accounting firms offering tax return preparation services. Commercial tax return preparers are highly competitive with regard to price and service. In DIY and virtual, options include various forms of digital electronic assistance, including online and mobile applications, and desktop software, all of which we offer. Our DIY and virtual services and products compete with a number of online and software companies, primarily on price and functionality. Individual tax filers may elect to change their tax preparation method, choosing from among various assisted, DIY, and virtual offerings.
Our Block Horizons strategy is focused on small businesses, financial products and the tax client experience. While we believe that our strategic objectives reflect opportunities that are appropriate and achievable, it is possible that our objectives may not deliver projected long-term growth in revenue and profitability due to competition, inadequate execution, incorrect assumptions, sub-optimal resource allocation, or other reasons, including any of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section. If we are unable to realize the desired benefits from our business strategy, our ability to compete across our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Technology advances quickly and in new and unexpected ways, and it is difficult to predict the manner in which these changes will impact the tax return preparation industry, the problems we may encounter in enhancing our services and products, or the time and resources we may need to devote to the creation, support, and maintenance of technological enhancements. In addition, new technologies, such as those related to artificial intelligence, machine learning, automation, and algorithms, may have unexpected consequences, which may be due to their limitations, potential manipulation or unintended uses, or our failure to use or implement them effectively. If we are slow to enhance our services, products, or technologies, if our competitors are able to achieve results more quickly than us, if there are new and unexpected entrants into the industry, or if there are new technologies available that provide products or services that compete with ours, we may fail to capture, or lose, a significant share of the market.
Additionally, we and many other tax return preparation firms compete by offering one or more of RTs, prepaid cards, RAs, other financial services and products, and other tax-related services and products, many of which are subject to regulatory scrutiny, litigation, and other risks. From time to time we may make changes to certain of our services and products and we can make no assurances that we will be able to offer, or that we will continue to offer, all of these services and products. Any such changes to our services or products or any failure to continue offering such services and products could negatively impact our financial results and ability to compete. Intense competition could result in a reduction of our market share, lower revenues, lower margins, and lower profitability. In addition, we face intense competition with our small business solutions. We may be unsuccessful in competing with other providers, which may diminish our revenue and profitability, and harm our ability to acquire and retain clients.
Offers of free services or products could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
U.S. federal, state, and foreign governmental authorities in certain jurisdictions in which we operate currently offer, or facilitate the offering of, tax return preparation and electronic filing options to taxpayers at no charge, and certain volunteer organizations also prepare tax returns at no charge for low-income taxpayers. In addition, many of our competitors offer certain tax preparation services and products, and other financial services and products, at no charge. Government tax authorities, volunteer organizations, our competitors, and potential new market entrants may also elect to implement or expand free offerings in the future. Free File, Inc., which operates under an agreement that is currently set to expire in October 2025, is currently the sole means through which the IRS offers free DIY tax software to taxpayers, however the IRS is not prohibited from offering competing services. For example, in May 2023, the IRS announced that it is beginning a limited pilot project to evaluate customer support and technology needs related to a direct online tax filing system, and is also evaluating the IRS’s ability to overcome the potential operational challenges associated with such a system. As a result of this or other programs,
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the federal government could become our direct competitor, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In order to compete, we have offered certain, and may in the future offer additional, services and products at no charge. There can be no assurance that we will be able to attract clients or effectively ensure the migration of clients from our free offerings to those for which we receive fees, and clients who have formerly paid for our offerings may elect to use free offerings instead. These competitive factors may diminish our revenue and profitability, or harm our ability to acquire and retain clients, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our businesses may be adversely affected by difficult economic conditions.
Unfavorable changes in economic conditions, which are typically beyond our control, including without limitation, inflation, slowing growth, rising interest rates, recession, changes in the political climate, war (including, but not limited to, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine), supply chain or labor market disruptions, banking or financial market disruptions, or other adverse changes, could negatively affect our business and financial condition. Difficult economic conditions are frequently characterized by high unemployment levels and declining consumer and business spending. These poor economic conditions may negatively affect demand and pricing for our services and products. In the event of difficult economic conditions that include high unemployment levels, especially within the client segments we serve, clients may elect not to file tax returns or utilize lower cost preparation and filing alternatives.
In addition, difficult economic conditions may disproportionately impact small business owners. Wave’s revenues were negatively impacted during the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may again be negatively impacted in the event of a sustained economic slowdown or recession. Difficult economic conditions, including an economic recession or high inflationary period, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
OPERATIONAL AND EXECUTION RISKS
Our failure to effectively address fraud by third parties using our offerings could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Many industries have experienced an increased variety and amount of attempted fraudulent activities by third parties, and those fraudulent activities are becoming increasingly sophisticated. A number of companies, including some in the tax return preparation and financial services industries, have reported instances where criminals gained access to consumer information or user accounts maintained on their systems by using stolen identity information (e.g., email, username, password information, or credit history) obtained from third-party sources. We have experienced, and in the future may continue to experience, this form of unauthorized and illegal access to our systems, despite no breach in the security of our systems. Though we do not believe this fraud is uniquely targeted at our offerings, our failure to effectively address any such fraud may adversely impact our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In addition to losses directly from such fraud, which could occur in some cases, we may also suffer a loss of confidence by our clients or by governmental agencies in our ability to detect and mitigate fraudulent activity, and such governmental authorities may refuse to allow us to continue to offer such services or products. For example, a person with malicious intent may unlawfully take user account and password information from our clients to electronically file fraudulent federal and state tax returns, which could impede our clients' ability to file their tax returns and receive refunds (or other amounts due) and diminish consumers' perceptions of the security and reliability of our services and products, despite no breach in the security of our systems.
Governmental authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate have taken action, and may in the future take additional action, in an attempt to combat identity theft or other fraud, which may require changes to our systems and business practices, or those of third parties on which we rely, that cannot be anticipated. These actions may have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Furthermore, as fraudulent activity becomes more pervasive and sophisticated, we may implement fraud detection and prevention measures that could make it less convenient for legitimate clients to obtain and use our
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services and products, which may adversely affect the demand for our services and products, our reputation, and our financial performance.
An interruption in our information systems, or those of our franchisees or a third party on which we rely, or an interruption in the internet, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We, our franchisees, and other third parties material to our business operations rely heavily upon communications, networks, and information systems and the internet to conduct our business (including third-party internet-based or cloud computing services, and the information systems of our key vendors). These networks, systems, and operations are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from upgrades and maintenance, network failure, hardware failure, software failure, power or telecommunications failures, cyberattacks, human error, and natural disasters. As our tax preparation business is seasonal, our systems must be capable of processing high volumes during our peak periods. Therefore, any failure or interruption in our information systems, or information systems of our franchisees or a private or government third party on which we rely, or an interruption in the internet or other critical business capability during our busiest periods, could negatively impact our business operations and reputation, and increase our risk of loss.
There can be no assurance that system or internet failures or interruptions in critical business capabilities will not occur, or, if they do occur, that we, our franchisees or the private or governmental third parties on whom we rely, will adequately address them. The precautionary measures that we, or third parties on whom we rely, have implemented to avoid systems outages and to minimize the effects of any data or communication systems interruptions or failures may not be adequate, and we and such third parties may not have anticipated or addressed all of the potential events that could threaten or undermine our or such third parties information systems or other critical business capabilities. We do not have redundancy for all of our systems and our disaster recovery planning may not account for all eventualities. Our software and computer systems utilize cloud computing services provided by Microsoft Corporation. If the Microsoft Azure Cloud is unavailable for any reason, it could negatively impact our ability to deliver our services and products and our clients may not be able to access certain of our products or features, any of which could significantly impact our operations, business, and financial results.
The occurrence of any systems or internet failure, or business interruption could negatively impact our ability to serve our clients, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Any significant delays in launching our tax service and product offerings, changes in government regulations or processes (including the acceptance of tax returns and the issuance of refunds and other amounts to clients by the IRS or state tax agencies) that affect how we provide such offerings to our clients, or significant problems with such offerings or the manner in which we provide them to our clients may harm our revenue, results of operations, and reputation.
Tax laws and tax forms are subject to change each year, and the nature and timing of such changes are unpredictable. As a part of our business, we must incorporate any changes to tax laws and tax forms into our tax service and product offerings, including our online and mobile applications and desktop software. The unpredictable nature, timing and effective dates of changes to tax laws and tax forms can result in condensed development cycles for our tax service and product offerings because our clients expect high levels of accuracy and a timely launch of such offerings to prepare and file their taxes by the applicable tax filing deadlines and, in turn, receive any tax refund amounts on a timely basis. From time to time, we review and enhance our quality controls for preparing accurate tax returns, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to prevent all inaccuracies. Further, changes in governmental administrations or regulations could result in further and unanticipated changes in requirements or processes, which may require us to make corresponding changes to our client service systems and procedures. In addition, unanticipated changes in governmental processes, or newly implemented processes, for (1) accepting tax filings and related forms, including the ability of taxing authorities to accept electronic tax
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return filings, or (2) distributing tax refunds or other amounts to clients may result in processing delays by us or applicable taxing authorities.
Certain of our financial products are dependent on the IRS following the client’s directions to direct deposit the tax refund. If the IRS disregards this direction, and sends the tax refund via check, then it could result in a loss of tax preparation and financial product revenue, negative publicity, and client dissatisfaction. In addition, any delays in launching new financial service or product offerings, or technical or other issues associated with the launch, could cause a loss of clients or client dissatisfaction, especially if such issues occur during the tax season.
Any major defects or delays caused by the above-described complexities may lead to loss of clients and loss of or delay in revenue, negative publicity, client dissatisfaction, a deterioration in our business relationships with our partners or our franchisees, exposure to litigation, and increased operating expenses, even if any such launch delays or defects are not caused by us. Any of the risks described above could have a material adverse effect on our business, our reputation, and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We rely on a single vendor or a limited number of vendors to provide certain key services or products, and the loss of such relationships, the inability of these key vendors to meet our needs, or errors by the key vendors in providing services to or for us, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Historically, we have contracted, and in the future we will likely continue to contract, with a single vendor or a limited number of vendors to provide certain key services or products for our tax, financial, and other services and products. A few examples of this type of reliance are our relationships with Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. (FIS), Galileo Financial Technologies, LLC, or similar vendors, for data processing and card production services, Pathward, for the issuance of RTs, EAs RAs, Emerald Cards, and Spruce accounts, and Microsoft Corporation, for cloud computing services and artificial intelligence technology. In certain instances, we are vulnerable to vendor error, service inefficiencies, data breaches, service interruptions, or service delays, and such issues by our key vendors in providing services to or for us could result in material losses for us due to the nature of the services being provided or our contractual relationships with our vendors. If any material adverse event were to affect one of our key vendors or if we are no longer able to contract with our key vendors for any reason, we may be forced to find an alternative provider for these critical services. It may not be possible to find a replacement vendor on terms that are acceptable to us or at all.
Our sensitivity to any of these issues may be heightened (1) due to the seasonality of our business, (2) with respect to any vendor that we utilize for the provision of any product or service that has specialized expertise, (3) with respect to any vendor that is a sole or exclusive provider, or (4) with respect to any vendor whose indemnification obligations are limited or that does not have the financial capacity to satisfy its indemnification obligations. Some of our vendors are subject to the oversight of regulatory bodies and, as a result, our product or service offerings may be affected by the actions or decisions of such regulatory bodies. If our vendors are unable to meet our needs and we are not able to develop alternative sources for these services and products quickly and cost-effectively, or if a key vendor were to commit a major error or suffer a material adverse event, it could result in a material and adverse impact on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The specialized and highly seasonal nature of our business presents financial risks and operational and human capital challenges.
Our business is highly seasonal, with the substantial portion of our revenue earned from February through April in a typical year. The concentration of our revenue-generating activity during this relatively short period presents a number of challenges for us, including (1) cash and resource management during the remainder of our fiscal year, when we generally operate at a loss and incur fixed costs and costs of preparing for the upcoming tax season, (2) responding to changes in competitive conditions, including marketing, pricing, and new product offerings, which could affect our position during the tax season, (3) disruptions, delays, or extensions in a tax season, including those caused by pandemics, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, or severe weather, (4) client dissatisfaction issues or negative social media campaigns, which may not be timely discovered or satisfactorily addressed, and (5) ensuring optimal uninterrupted operations and service delivery during the tax season, which may be disrupted by natural or manmade disasters, extreme weather conditions, pandemics, or other catastrophic events. If we experience
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significant business disruptions during the tax season or if we are unable to effectively address the challenges described above and related challenges associated with a seasonal business, we could experience a loss, disruption, or change in timing of business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We may be unable to attract and retain key personnel or fully control or accurately predict our labor costs.
Our business depends on our ability to attract, develop, motivate, and retain key personnel in a timely manner, including members of our executive team and those in seasonal tax preparation positions (which may be required on short notice during any extended tax season or to serve extended filers) or with other required specialized expertise, such as technical positions (including with respect to cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, and machine learning). The market for such personnel is extremely competitive, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts to attract and retain the required qualified personnel within necessary timeframes, or at expected cost levels. As the global labor market continues to evolve as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and other changes, our current and prospective key personnel may seek new or different opportunities based on pay levels, benefits, or remote work flexibility that are different from what we offer, or may determine to leave the workforce, making it difficult to attract and retain them. If we are unable to attract, develop, motivate, and retain key personnel, our business, operations, and financial results could be negatively impacted. In addition, if our costs of labor or related costs increase, if new or revised labor laws, rules, or regulations are adopted or implemented that impact our seasonal workforce and increase our labor costs, or if our labor costs are unpredictable due to tax season fluctuations or otherwise, there could be a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our business depends on our strong reputation and the value of our brands.
Developing and maintaining awareness of our brands is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our existing and future services and products and is an important element in attracting new clients. In addition, our franchisees operate their businesses under our brands. Adverse publicity (whether or not justified) relating to events or activities involving or attributed to us, our franchisees, employees, vendors, or agents or our services or products, which may be enhanced due to the nature of social media, may tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brands. Damage to our reputation and loss of brand equity may reduce demand for our services and products and thus have an adverse effect on our future financial results, as well as require additional resources to rebuild our reputation and restore the value of our brands.
Failure to maintain sound business relationships with our franchisees may have a material adverse effect on our business and we may be subject to legal and other challenges resulting from our franchisee relationships.
Our financial success depends in part on our ability to maintain sound business relationships with our franchisees. The support of our franchisees is also critical for the success of our ongoing operations. Deterioration in our relationships with our franchisees could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We also grant our franchisees a limited license to use our registered trademarks and, accordingly, there is risk that one or more of the franchisees may be alleged to be controlled by us. Third parties, regulators or courts may seek to hold us responsible for the actions or failures to act by our franchisees. Adverse outcomes related to legal actions could result in substantial damages and could cause our earnings to decline. Negative public opinion could also result from our or our franchisees’ actual or alleged conduct in such claims, possibly damaging our reputation, which, in turn, could adversely affect our business prospects and cause the market price of our securities to decline.
Our international operations are subject to risks that may harm our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We have international operations, including tax preparation businesses in Canada and Australia, technology centers in India and Ireland, and Wave in Canada. We may consider expansion opportunities in additional countries in the future and there is uncertainty about our ability to generate revenues from new or emerging foreign operations or expand into other international markets. Additionally, there are risks inherent in doing business internationally, including: (1) changes in trade regulations; (2) difficulties in managing foreign operations as a result
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of distance, language, and cultural differences; (3) profit repatriation restrictions, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; (4) geopolitical events, including acts of war and terrorism, and economic and political instability; (5) compliance with anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other applicable foreign anti-corruption laws; (6) compliance with U.S. and international laws and regulations, including those concerning privacy and data protection and retention; and (7) risks related to other government regulation or required compliance with local laws. These risks inherent in international operations and expansion could prevent us from expanding into other international markets or increase our costs of doing business internationally and could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In addition, we prepare U.S. federal and state tax returns for taxpayers residing in foreign jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), and we and certain of our franchisees operate and provide other services in foreign jurisdictions. As a result, certain aspects of our operations are subject, or may in the future become subject, to the laws, regulations, and policies of those jurisdictions that regulate the collection, use, and transfer of personal information, which may be more stringent than those of the U.S., including, but not limited to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, the Canadian Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, and Canadian Provincial legislation.
Costs for us to comply with such laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to us could be significant. We may also face audits or investigations by one or more foreign government agencies relating to these laws, regulations, and policies that could result in the imposition of penalties or fines.
Our financial condition and results of operations have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be impacted by a resurgence of COVID-19 or a variant thereof or a future outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease.
During March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak to be a global pandemic, and the impacts of the pandemic have been felt since that time. Since the beginning of the pandemic, jurisdictions in which we operate have from time-to-time imposed various restrictions on our business. Notwithstanding our efforts to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, or a variant thereof, on our business, there is no certainty that the measures we implemented, or may implement in the future, are or will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by COVID-19, a variant thereof, or another infectious disease. Alleged failures in this regard could result in negative impacts, including regulatory investigations, claims, legal actions, harm to our reputation and brands, fines, penalties, and other damages.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the IRS and substantially all U.S. states extended the filing deadline in consecutive tax seasons for 2019 and 2020 individual income tax returns. These extensions impacted the typical seasonality of our business and the comparability of our financial results. In the event of a resurgence of COVID-19 or the outbreak of another infectious disease, Treasury, the IRS, and state or foreign officials may determine to extend future tax deadlines or take other actions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows in future years.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic or another outbreak impacts our business, operations, and financial results going forward will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict. The resurgence of COVID-19 or a variant thereof or a new global or national outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease, the requirements to take action to help limit the spread of illness, and the other risks described above may further impact our ability to carry out our business and may materially adversely impact global economic conditions, our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
INFORMATION SECURITY, CYBERSECURITY, AND DATA PRIVACY RISKS
Compliance with the complex and evolving laws, regulations, standards, and contractual requirements regarding privacy and data protection could require changes in our business practices and increase costs of operation; failure to comply could result in significant claims, fines, penalties, and damages.
Due to the nature of our business, we collect, use, and retain large amounts of personal information and data pertaining to clients, including tax return information, financial product and service information, and social security
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numbers. In addition, we collect, use, and retain personal information and data of our employees in the ordinary course of our business.
We are subject to laws, rules, and regulations relating to the collection, use, disclosure, and security of such consumer and employee personal information, which have drawn increased attention from U.S. federal, state, and foreign governmental authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate. In the U.S., the IRS generally requires a tax return preparer to obtain the written consent of the taxpayer prior to using or disclosing the taxpayer's tax return information for certain purposes other than tax return preparation, which may limit our ability to market revenue-generating products to our clients. In addition, other regulations require financial institutions to adopt and disclose their consumer privacy notice and generally provide consumers with a reasonable opportunity to "opt-out" of having nonpublic personal information disclosed to unaffiliated third parties for certain purposes.
Numerous jurisdictions have passed, and may in the future pass, new laws related to the collection, use, and retention of consumer or employee information and this area continues to be an area of interest for U.S. federal, state, and foreign governmental authorities. For example, the State of California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which became effective January 1, 2020, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) on January 1, 2023. Subject to certain exceptions, these laws impose new requirements on how businesses collect, process, manage, and retain certain personal information of California residents and provide California residents with various rights regarding personal information collected by a business. In addition, certain states have adopted comprehensive privacy laws, and other jurisdictions have adopted or may in the future adopt their own, different privacy laws. These laws may contain different requirements or may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Our current privacy and data protection policies and practices may not be consistent with all of those requirements, interpretations, or applications. In addition, changes in U.S. federal and state regulatory requirements, as well as requirements imposed by governmental authorities in foreign jurisdictions in which we operate, could result in more stringent requirements and a need to change business practices, including the types of information we can use and the manner in which we can use such information. Establishing systems and processes, or making changes to our existing policies, to achieve compliance with these complex and evolving requirements may increase our costs or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will successfully comply in all circumstances. We are, and may in the future be, subject to regulatory investigations, claims and legal actions related to the collection, use, sharing, and/or retention of information, which could lead to further inquiries, further legal actions, other regulatory or legislative actions, harm to our reputation and brands, fines, penalties, and other damages.
We have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses to comply with existing or future privacy and data security standards and protocols imposed by law, regulation, industry standards or contractual obligations.
A security breach of our systems, or third-party systems on which we rely, resulting in unauthorized access to personal information of our clients or employees or other sensitive, nonpublic information, may adversely affect the demand for our services and products, our reputation, and financial performance.
We offer a range of services and products to our clients, including tax return preparation solutions, financial services and products, and small business solutions through our company-owned or franchise offices and online. Due to the nature of these services and products, we use multiple digital technologies to collect, transmit, and store high volumes of client personal information. We also collect, use, and retain other sensitive, nonpublic information, such as employee social security numbers, healthcare information, and payroll information, as well as confidential, nonpublic business information. Certain third parties and vendors have access to personal information to help deliver client benefits, services and products, or may host certain of our and our clients’ sensitive and personal information and data. Information security risks continue to increase due in part to the increased adoption of and reliance upon digital technologies by companies and consumers. Our risk and exposure to these matters remain heightened due to a variety of factors including, among other things, (1) the evolving nature of these threats and related regulation, (2) the increased activity and sophistication of hostile foreign governments, organized crime, cyber criminals, and hackers that may initiate cyberattacks against us or third-party systems on which we rely, (3) the prominence of our brand, (4) our and our franchisees' extensive office footprint, (5) our plans to continue to implement strategies for our online and mobile applications and our desktop software, (6) our use of third-party vendors, (7) our use of certain new technologies, such as artificial intelligence and
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machine learning, and (8) the usage of remote working arrangements by our associates, franchisees, and third-party vendors, which significantly expanded due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cybersecurity risks may result from fraud or malice (a cyberattack), human error, or accidental technological failure. Cyberattacks are designed to electronically circumvent network security for malicious purposes such as unlawfully obtaining personal information, disrupting our ability to offer services, damaging our brand and reputation, stealing our intellectual property, or advancing social or political agendas. We face a variety of cyberattack threats including computer viruses, malicious codes, worms, phishing attacks, social engineering, denial of service attacks, ransomware, and other sophisticated attacks.
Although we use security and business controls to limit access to and use of personal information and expend significant resources to maintain multiple levels of protection to address or otherwise mitigate the risk of a security breach, such measures cannot provide absolute security. We regularly test our systems to discover and address potential vulnerabilities, and we rely on training and testing of our employees regarding heightened phishing and social engineering threats. We also conduct certain background checks on our employees, as allowed by law. Due to the structure of our business model, we also rely on our franchisees, vendors, and other private and governmental third parties to maintain secure systems and respond to cybersecurity risks. Where appropriate, we impose certain requirements and controls on these third parties, but it is possible that they may not appropriately employ these controls or that such controls (or their own separate requirements and controls) may be insufficient to protect personal information.
Cybersecurity and the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes, and practices designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data, and networks from attack, damage, or unauthorized access remain a top priority for us. As risks and regulations continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate information security vulnerabilities. Notwithstanding these efforts, there can be no assurance that a security breach, intrusion, or loss or theft of personal information will not occur. In addition, the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access change frequently, become more sophisticated, and are often difficult to detect until after a successful attack, causing us to be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures in all cases.
Unauthorized access to personal information as a result of a security breach could cause us to determine that it is required or advisable for us to notify affected individuals, regulators, or others under applicable privacy laws and regulations or otherwise. Security breach remediation could also require us to expend significant resources to assist impacted individuals, repair damaged systems, implement modified information security measures, and maintain client and business relationships. Other consequences could include reduced client demand for our services and products, loss of valuable intellectual property, reduced growth and profitability and negative impacts to future financial results, loss of our ability to deliver one or more services or products (e.g., inability to provide financial services and products or to accept and process client credit card transactions or tax returns), modifying or stopping existing business practices, legal actions, harm to our reputation and brands, fines, penalties, and other damages, and further regulation and oversight by U.S. federal, state, or foreign governmental authorities.
A security breach or other unauthorized access to our systems, or third-party systems on which we rely, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Regulations promulgated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) or other regulators may affect our financial services businesses in ways we cannot predict, which may require changes to the financial products we offer, our services and contracts.
The CFPB has broad powers to administer, investigate compliance with, and, in some cases, enforce U.S. federal financial consumer protection laws. The CFPB has broad rule-making authority for a wide range of financial consumer protection laws that apply to certain of the financial products we offer, including the authority to
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prohibit or allege "unfair, deceptive, or abusive" acts and practices. It is difficult to predict how currently proposed or new regulations may impact the financial products we offer.
The CFPB and other federal or state regulators may examine, investigate, and take enforcement actions against our subsidiaries that offer consumer financial services and products, as well as financial institutions and other third parties upon which our subsidiaries rely to provide consumer financial services and products. State regulators also have certain authority in enforcing and promulgating financial consumer protection laws, the results of which could be (i) states issuing new and broader financial consumer protection laws, some of which could be more comprehensive than existing U.S. federal regulations, or (ii) state attorneys general bringing actions to enforce federal consumer protection laws.
Currently proposed or new federal and state laws and regulations, or expanded interpretations of current laws and regulations, may require changes to the financial products we offer, our services or contracts, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Laws and regulations or other regulatory actions could have an adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our tax preparation business and operations are subject to various forms of government regulation, including U.S. federal requirements regarding the signature and inclusion of identification numbers on tax returns and tax return retention requirements. U.S. federal laws also subject income tax return preparers to accuracy-related penalties, and preparers may be prohibited from continuing to act as income tax return preparers if they repeatedly engage in specified misconduct. We are also subject to, among other things, advertising standards for electronic tax return filers, and to possible monitoring by the IRS, and if deemed appropriate, the IRS could impose various penalties, including suspension from the IRS electronic filing program. Many states and local jurisdictions have laws regulating tax professionals or the offering of income tax courses, which are in addition to and may be different than federal requirements.
In addition, our franchising activities are subject to various rules and regulations, including requirements to furnish prospective franchisees with a prescribed franchise disclosure document. Substantive state laws regulating the franchisor/franchisee relationship presently exist in a large number of states. These state laws often limit, among other things, the duration and scope of non-competition provisions, the ability of a franchisor to terminate or refuse to renew a franchise contract and the ability of a franchisor to designate sources of supply. In addition, bills have been introduced from time to time that would provide for federal regulation of the franchisor/franchisee relationship in certain respects or that would impact the traditional nature of the relationship between franchisors and franchisees.
Additionally, our offering of consumer financial products and services are subject to various rules and regulations, including potential limitations or restrictions on the amount of interchange fees. There can be no assurance that future regulation or changes by the payment networks will not impact interchange revenues substantially. If interchange rates decline, whether due to actions by the payment networks or future regulation, it could impact the profitability of our consumer financial products and services or our ability to offer such products or services.
Given the nature of our businesses, we are subject to various additional federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, in the areas of labor, immigration, marketing and advertising, consumer protection, financial services and products, payment processing, privacy and data security, anti-competition, environmental, health and safety, insurance, and healthcare. There have been significant new or proposed regulations and/or heightened focus by the government and others in some of these areas, including, for example, privacy and data security, climate change, interchange fees, consumer financial services and products, endorsements and testimonials, telemarketing, web and wireless marketing technologies, restrictive covenants, and labor, including overtime and exemption regulations, state and local laws on minimum wage, worker classification, and other labor-related issues. In addition, as we continue to incorporate additional or emerging technologies into our business, such as in the areas of artificial intelligence and machine learning, we may become subject to increased government regulation or regulatory scrutiny.
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The above requirements and business implications are subject to change and evolving application, including by means of new legislation, legislative changes, and/or executive orders, and there may be additional regulatory actions or enforcement priorities, or new interpretations of existing requirements that differ from ours. These developments could impose unanticipated limitations or require changes to our business, which may make elements of our business more expensive, less efficient, or impossible to conduct, and may require us to modify our current or future services or products, which effects may be heightened given the nature, broad geographic scope, and seasonality of our business.
We face legal actions in connection with our various business activities, and current or future legal actions may damage our reputation, impair our product offerings, or result in material liabilities and losses.
We have been named and, in the future will likely continue to be named, in various legal actions, including class or representative actions, individual or mass arbitrations, actions or inquiries by state attorneys general and other regulators, and other litigation arising in connection with our various business activities, including relating to our various service and product offerings. For example, as previously reported, we are subject to litigation and have received and are responding to certain governmental inquiries relating to the IRS Free File program and our DIY tax preparation services. These inquiries include, among other things, requests for information and subpoenas from various regulators and state attorneys general. We cannot predict whether these legal actions could lead to further inquiries, further litigation, fines, injunctions or other regulatory or legislative actions or impacts on our brand, reputation and business. See discussion in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Failure to protect our intellectual property rights may harm our competitive position and litigation to protect our intellectual property rights or defend against third party allegations of infringement may be costly.
Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property and proprietary information, we may be unable to do so effectively in all cases. Our intellectual property could be wrongfully acquired as a result of a cyberattack, other wrongful conduct by employees or third parties, or human error. To the extent that our intellectual property is not protected effectively by trademarks, copyrights, patents, or other means, other parties with knowledge of our intellectual property, including former employees, may seek to exploit our intellectual property for their own or others' advantage. Competitors may also misappropriate our trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property rights or duplicate our technology and products. Any significant impairment or misappropriation of our intellectual property or proprietary information could harm our business and our brand, and may adversely affect our ability to compete.
In addition, third parties may allege we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we may face intellectual property challenges from other parties. We may not be successful in defending against any such challenges or in obtaining licenses to avoid or resolve any intellectual property disputes and, in that event, we could lose significant revenues, incur significant royalty or technology development expenses, suffer harm to our reputation, or pay significant monetary damages.
FINANCIAL RISKS
Our access to liquidity may be negatively impacted by disruptions in credit markets, downgraded credit ratings, increased interest rates or our failure to meet certain covenants. Our funding costs could increase, further impacting earnings.
We need liquidity to meet our working capital requirements, to service debt obligations, including refinancing of maturing obligations, and for general corporate purposes. Our operations are highly seasonal and substantially all of our revenues and cash flows are generated during the period from February through April in a typical year. Therefore, we normally require the use of cash to fund losses and working capital needs, periodically resulting in a working capital deficit, from May through January. We typically have relied on available cash balances from the prior tax season and borrowings to meet liquidity needs during this time period. Events may occur that could increase our need for liquidity above current levels. We may need to obtain additional sources of funding to meet these needs, which may not be available or may only be available under unfavorable terms. In addition, if rating agencies downgrade our credit rating or interest rates increase, the cost of debt under our existing financing
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arrangements, as well as future financing arrangements, could increase and our capital market access could decrease or become unavailable.
Our unsecured committed line of credit (CLOC) is subject to various covenants, and a violation of a covenant could impair our access to liquidity currently available through the CLOC. In addition, if we violate a covenant in the CLOC and are unable to obtain a waiver from our lenders, our debt under the CLOC would be in default and could be accelerated by our lenders. An acceleration of the indebtedness under the CLOC would cause a cross default under the indenture governing our Senior Notes. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain sufficient funds to enable us to repay or refinance our debt obligations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
If current sources of liquidity were to become unavailable, we would need to obtain additional sources of funding, which may not be available or may only be available under less favorable terms. This could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The continued payment of dividends on our common stock and repurchases of our common stock are dependent on a number of factors, and cannot be assured.
We need liquidity sufficient to fund payments of dividends on our common stock and repurchases of our common stock. In addition, holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends, and the Company may only repurchase shares, as our Board of Directors may authorize out of funds legally available for such payments. Due to the seasonal nature of our business and the fact that our business is not asset-intensive, we have had, and are likely to continue to have, a negative net worth under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) at various times throughout the year. Therefore, the payment of dividends or stock repurchases at such times would cause us to further increase that GAAP negative net worth.
The payment of future dividends and future repurchases will depend upon our earnings, economic conditions, liquidity and capital requirements, and other factors, including our debt leverage. Even if we have sufficient resources to pay dividends and to repurchase shares of our common stock, our Board of Directors may determine to use such resources to fund other Company initiatives. Accordingly, we cannot make any assurance that future dividends will be paid, or future repurchases will be made, at levels comparable to our historical practices, if at all.
Changes in corporate tax laws or regulations, or in the interpretations of tax laws or regulations, could materially affect our financial condition, cash flows, and operating results.
As a profitable multinational corporation, we are subject to a material amount of taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions where our subsidiaries are organized and conduct their operations. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. The amount of tax due in various jurisdictions may change significantly as a result of political or economic factors beyond our control, including changes to tax laws or new interpretations of existing laws that are inconsistent with previous interpretations or positions taken by taxing authorities on which we have relied. New regulatory guidance, or regulatory interpretations that differ from our existing interpretations, could materially affect our effective tax rates or value of deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Legislatures and taxing authorities in jurisdictions in which we operate may propose additional changes to their tax rules in response to economic conditions, or as part of broader tax reformation initiatives. The current administration previously committed to increasing the corporate income tax rate from 21 percent to 28 percent, and to increasing the tax rate applied to profits earned outside the United States. If enacted, the impact of these potential new rules could be material to our tax provision and value of deferred tax assets and liabilities.
In addition, projects undertaken by international organizations may change international tax norms relating to each country’s jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade. Given the unpredictability of these and other possible changes to tax laws and related regulations, it is difficult to assess the overall effect of such potential changes, but any such changes could, if adopted and applicable to us, adversely impact our effective tax rates and other tax liabilities.
Our tax returns and other tax matters are periodically examined by tax authorities and governmental bodies, including the IRS, which may disagree with positions taken by us in determining our tax liability. There can be no
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assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes.
If our effective tax rates were to increase, or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
RISKS RELATING TO DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
Sand Canyon Corporation, previously known as Option One Mortgage Corporation (including its subsidiaries, collectively, SCC), is subject to loss contingencies, including indemnification and contribution claims, which may result in significant financial losses. Additionally, we could be subject to claims by the creditors of SCC.
Although SCC ceased its mortgage loan origination activities in December 2007 and sold its loan servicing business in April 2008, SCC has been and may in the future be, subject to loss contingencies, including indemnification and contribution claims, pertaining to SCC's mortgage business activities that occurred prior to such termination and sale. If the amount that SCC is ultimately required to pay with respect to these claims, together with related administration and legal expense, exceeds its net assets, the creditors of SCC, other potential claimants, or a bankruptcy trustee if SCC were to file or be forced into bankruptcy, may attempt to assert claims against us for payment of SCC's obligations. Claimants have also attempted, and may in the future attempt, to assert claims against or seek payment directly from the Company even if SCC's assets exceed its liabilities. SCC's principal assets, as of June 30, 2023, total approximately $262 million and consist of an intercompany note receivable. We believe our legal position is strong on any potential corporate veil-piercing arguments; however, if this position is challenged and not upheld, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Most of our tax offices are operated under leases throughout the U.S., Canada and Australia.
We own our corporate headquarters, which is located in Kansas City, Missouri. Our Canadian executive offices are located in a leased office in Calgary, Alberta. Our Australian executive offices are located in a leased office in Thornleigh, New South Wales. Wave's headquarters are located in leased offices in Toronto, Ontario.
All current leased and owned facilities are in reasonably good repair and adequate to meet our needs.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, see discussion in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
MARKET INFORMATION AND HOLDERS – H&R Block's common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol HRB. On July 31, 2023, there were 12,788 shareholders of record and the closing stock price on the NYSE was $33.61 per share.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


DIVIDENDS – Although we have historically paid dividends and plan to continue to do so, there can be no assurances that circumstances will not change in the future that could affect our ability or decisions to pay dividends.
PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER – A summary of our purchases of H&R Block common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023 is as follows:
(in 000s, except per share amounts)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased (1)
Average
Price Paid
per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs (2)
Maximum Dollar Value of
Shares that May be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs (2)
April 1 – April 301 $35.24  $900,000 
May 1 - May 313,024 $30.09 3,015 $809,310 
June 1 - June 303,536 $31.66 3,452 $700,000 
6,561 $30.94 6,467 
(1)We purchased approximately 94 thousand shares in connection with funding employee income tax withholding obligations arising upon the lapse of restrictions on restricted share units.
(2)In August 2022, we announced that our Board of Directors approved a $1.25 billion share repurchase program, effective through June 2025.
PERFORMANCE GRAPH – The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return provided to shareholders of H&R Block, Inc.'s common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the S&P Midcap 400 index and a selected peer group. We previously used a self-selected peer group that consisted of the compensation peer group disclosed in our proxy statement. Beginning in fiscal year 2023, we are using the S&P 400 Consumer Services Industry index as the included industry or line-of-business index. We believe using an index will provide more consistency than the compensation peer group disclosed in our proxy statement that is selected on an annual basis.
An investment of $100, with reinvestment of all dividends, is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each of the indexes on June 30, 2018, and its relative performance is tracked through June 30, 2023.
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Note:    The Current Year Peer Group is the S&P 400 Consumer Services Industry Index. The Prior Year Peer Group includes the following companies: ACI Worldwide Inc., Equifax Inc., Euronet Worldwide, Inc., Gartner, Inc., Genpact Limited, Global Payments Inc., Insperity, Inc., Intuit Inc., Jack Henry & Associates, Inc., Paychex, Inc., TransUnion, TriNet Group, Inc., Unisys Corporation, The Western Union Company, WEX Inc, and Workday, Inc.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Not applicable.
H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our subsidiaries provide assisted and DIY tax preparation solutions through multiple channels (including in-person, online and mobile applications, virtual, and desktop software) and distribute H&R Block-branded products and services, including those of our bank partners, to the general public primarily in the U.S., Canada and Australia. Tax returns are either prepared by H&R Block tax professionals (in company-owned or franchise offices, virtually or via an internet review) or prepared and filed by our clients through our DIY tax solutions. We also offer small business solutions through our company-owned and franchise offices and online through Wave. We report a single segment that includes all of our continuing operations.
This year's tax filing season was expected to return to normal with the pandemic largely behind us, no new federal programs, a large number of stimulus filers having left the industry in the prior year, and strong employment. Generally, tax return volume was expected to increase compared to the prior year, however, the industry volume declined year over year due to more stimulus filers not returning and the tax deadline being extended in certain states due to natural disasters.
In fiscal year 2023, revenue increased $8.9 million over the prior year, despite the decline in industry volume. U.S. assisted tax preparation revenues were higher $72.5 million primarily due to an increase in net average charge. Lower Emerald Card® revenues, which is the result of the discontinuance of prior year federal programs, and lower Refund Transfer volume partially offset this increase. Operating expenses increased $5.1 million primarily due to higher labor costs, which was partially offset by lower consulting and outsourced services expenses. Higher interest income and lower interest expense on borrowings resulted in an increase in income from continuing operations before income taxes of $52.1 million, or 7.9%. Income tax expense increased $51.0 million, or 51.8%, due to a higher effective tax rate in the current year. Net income from continuing operations of $561.8 million increased $1.2 million from the prior year.
Fiscal Year 2023 Compared to Fiscal Year 2022
RevenuesOperating ExpensesNet Income from Continuing Operations
$3.47B
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0.3%
$2.72B
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0.2%
$561.8M
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0.2%
Diluted EPS from Continuing Operations
EBITDA(1) from Continuing Operations
$3.56
Reported:
9.2%
$914.7M
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2.8%
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$3.82
Adjusted(1):
8.8%
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(1) See "Non-GAAP Financial Information" at the end of this item for a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
Fiscal Year End
On June 9, 2021, the Board of Directors approved a change in the Company's fiscal year end from April 30 to June 30. The Company's transition period was from May 1, 2021 to June 30, 2021 (Transition Period).
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


Consolidated – Financial Results(in 000s, except per share amounts)
Year ended June 30,20232022$ Change% Change
Revenues:
U.S. tax preparation and related services:
Assisted tax preparation$2,167,138 $2,094,612 $72,526 3.5 %
Royalties210,631 225,242 (14,611)(6.5)%
DIY tax preparation314,758 319,086 (4,328)(1.4)%
Refund Transfers143,310 162,893 (19,583)(12.0)%
Peace of Mind® Extended Service Plan95,181 94,637 544 0.6 %
Tax Identity Shield®38,265 39,114 (849)(2.2)%
Other45,252 45,961 (709)(1.5)%
Total U.S. tax preparation and related services3,014,535 2,981,545 32,990 1.1 %
Financial services:
Emerald Card® and SpruceSM
84,651 125,444 (40,793)(32.5)%
Interest and fee income on Emerald AdvanceSM
47,554 43,981 3,573 8.1 %
Total financial services132,205 169,425 (37,220)(22.0)%
International 235,131 231,335 3,796 1.6 %
Wave90,314 80,965 9,349 11.5 %
Total revenues$3,472,185 $3,463,270 $8,915 0.3 %
Compensation and benefits:
Field wages841,742 808,903 (32,839)(4.1)%
Other wages273,850 284,689 10,839 3.8 %
Benefits and other compensation220,530 206,902 (13,628)(6.6)%
1,336,122 1,300,494 (35,628)(2.7)%
Occupancy428,167 413,162 (15,005)(3.6)%
Marketing and advertising286,255 284,244 (2,011)(0.7)%
Depreciation and amortization130,501 142,178 11,677 8.2 %
Bad debt60,401 71,778 11,377 15.9 %
Other482,041 506,517 24,476 4.8 %
Total operating expenses2,723,487 2,718,373 (5,114)(0.2)%
Other income (expense), net35,492 2,454 33,038 1,346.3 %
Interest expense on borrowings(72,978)(88,282)15,304 17.3 %
Income from continuing operations before income taxes711,212 659,069 52,143 7.9 %
Income taxes149,412 98,423 (50,989)(51.8)%
Net income from continuing operations561,800 560,646 1,154 0.2 %
Net loss from discontinued operations(8,100)(6,972)(1,128)(16.2)%
Net income$553,700 $553,674 $26 — %
DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE:
Continuing operations$3.56 $3.26 $0.30 9.2 %
Discontinued operations(0.05)(0.04)(0.01)(25.0)%
Consolidated$3.51 $3.22 $0.29 9.0 %
Adjusted diluted EPS(1)
$3.82 $3.51 $0.31 8.8 %
EBITDA(1)
$914,691 $889,529 $25,162 2.8 %
(1)    All non-GAAP measures are results from continuing operations. See "Non-GAAP Financial Information" at the end of this item for a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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FISCAL YEAR 2023 COMPARED TO FISCAL YEAR 2022
Revenues increased $8.9 million, or 0.3%, from the prior year. U.S. assisted tax preparation revenues increased $72.5 million, or 3.5%, due to a 4.0% increase in net average charge, partially offset by lower tax return volumes in the current year. U.S. royalties revenue decreased $14.6 million, or 6.5%, due to lower volumes, partially offset by a higher net average charge in the current year. During the year we purchased franchise offices which results in increasing tax preparation revenues and decreasing royalties as the revenues and returns become company-owned after the acquisition. Through the year ended June 30, 2023, our total assisted tax return volume, which includes both company-owned and franchise offices, decreased 3.2% from the prior year.
U.S. DIY tax preparation revenues decreased $4.3 million, or 1.4%, due to a decline in online paid returns and lower software sales in the current year. Refund Transfer revenues decreased $19.6 million, or 12.0%, due to fewer Refund Transfers in the current year.
Emerald Card® and SpruceSM revenues decreased $40.8 million, or 32.5%, primarily due to higher Emerald Card® activity in the prior year, which was the result of the IRS loading Child Tax Credits monthly to Emerald Cards® and lower Refund Transfer volume in the current year. Wave revenues increased $9.3 million, or 11.5%, due to higher small business payments processing volumes.
Total operating expenses increased $5.1 million, or 0.2%, from the prior year. Field wages increased $32.8 million, or 4.1%, primarily due to higher wages in the current year. Other wages decreased $10.8 million, or 3.8%, due to lower corporate bonuses in the current year. Benefits and other compensation increased $13.6 million, or 6.6%, due to higher payroll taxes and employee insurance.
Occupancy expense increased $15.0 million or 3.6%, primarily due to higher rent and office repairs. Depreciation and amortization expense decreased $11.7 million, or 8.2%, due primarily to lower amortization of acquired intangibles. Bad debt expense decreased $11.4 million, or 15.9%, primarily due to fewer Refund Transfers and lower bad debt rates compared to the prior year.
Other operating expenses decreased $24.5 million, or 4.8%. The components of other expenses are as follows:
(in 000s)
Year ended June 30,20232022$ Change% Change
Consulting and outsourced services$109,120 $136,397 $27,277 20.0 %
Bank partner fees24,108 26,648 2,540 9.5 %
Client claims and refunds29,484 31,814 2,330 7.3 %
Employee and travel expenses39,262 31,714 (7,548)(23.8)%
Technology-related expenses102,753 97,934 (4,819)(4.9)%
Credit card/bank charges96,074 90,209 (5,865)(6.5)%
Insurance8,806 15,224 6,418 42.2 %
Legal fees and settlements12,058 19,625 7,567 38.6 %
Supplies29,278 28,846 (432)(1.5)%
Other31,098 28,106 (2,992)(10.6)%
$482,041 $506,517 $24,476 4.8 %
Consulting and outsourced services expense decreased $27.3 million, or 20.0%, due to higher spend in the prior year related to our strategic imperatives, and lower call center volumes and Emerald Card® data processing in the current year. Employee and travel expenses increased $7.5 million, or 23.8%, due to more travel in the current year. Insurance expense decreased $6.4 million, or 42.2%, due to due to favorable developments in insurance loss reserves. Legal fees and settlements expense decreased $7.6 million, or 38.6%, due to lower fees in the current year.
Other income (expense), net increased $33.0 million primarily due to higher interest income and income from a legal settlement in the current year. Interest expense on borrowings decreased $15.3 million, or 17.3%, due to the repayment of our $500 million 5.500% Senior Notes in May 2022, partially offset by higher interest expense on our CLOC borrowings in the current year.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


We recorded income tax expense of $149.4 million in the current year compared to $98.4 million in the prior year. The increase is due to higher pretax income and effective tax rate in the current year. The effective tax rate for the year ended June 30, 2023, and 2022 was 21.0% and 14.9%, respectively. See Item 8, note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion.
See the discussion of loss contingencies related to our discontinued operations in Item 1A, Risk Factors and in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
YEAR ENDED APRIL 30, 2021 COMPARED TO YEAR ENDED APRIL 30, 2020
The comparison of the year ended April 30, 2021 to April 30, 2020 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but can be found in our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, filed on August 16, 2022.
TWO MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2021 COMPARED TO TWO MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2020
The comparison of the two months ended June 30, 2021 to the two months ended June 30, 2020 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but can be found in our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, filed on August 16, 2022.
FINANCIAL CONDITION
These comments should be read in conjunction with the consolidated balance sheets and consolidated statements of cash flows included in Item 8.
CAPITAL RESOURCES AND LIQUIDITY
OVERVIEW – Our primary sources of capital and liquidity include cash from operations (including changes in working capital), draws on our CLOC, and issuances of debt. We use our sources of liquidity primarily to fund working capital, service and repay debt, pay dividends, repurchase shares of our common stock, and acquire businesses.
Our operations are highly seasonal and substantially all of our revenues and cash flow are generated during the period from February through April in a typical year. Therefore, we normally require the use of cash to fund losses and working capital needs, periodically resulting in a working capital deficit, from May through January. We typically have relied on available cash balances from the prior tax season and borrowings to meet liquidity needs.
Given the likely availability of a number of liquidity options discussed herein, we believe that in the absence of any unexpected developments, our existing sources of capital as of June 30, 2023 are sufficient to meet our future operating and financing needs.    
DISCUSSION OF CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS – The following table summarizes our statements of cash flows for fiscal year 2023 and 2022. See Item 8 for the complete consolidated statements of cash flows for these periods.
(in 000s)
Year ended June 30,20232022
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$821,841 $808,537 
Investing activities(101,389)(76,541)
Financing activities(750,992)(1,257,346)
Effects of exchange rates on cash(4,857)(8,101)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents, including restricted balances$(35,397)$(533,451)
    Operating Activities. Cash provided by operating activities totaled $821.8 million for the year ended June 30, 2023 compared to $808.5 million in the prior year period. The change is primarily due to the receipt of income tax receivables in the current year, partially offset by lower bonus accruals in the current year.
    Investing Activities. Cash used in investing activities totaled $101.4 million for the year ended June 30, 2023 compared to $76.5 million for the prior year period. The increase is primarily due to higher payments to acquire businesses and capital expenditures in the current year.
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    Financing Activities. Cash used in financing activities totaled $751.0 million for the year ended June 30, 2023 compared to $1.3 billion for the prior year period. The change is primarily due to repayment of our $500 million 5.500% Senior Notes in the prior year.
    CASH REQUIREMENTS
    Dividends and Share Repurchase. Returning capital to shareholders in the form of dividends and the repurchase of outstanding shares has historically been a significant component of our capital allocation plan.
    We have consistently paid quarterly dividends. Dividends paid totaled $177.9 million and $186.5 million in the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Although we have historically paid dividends and plan to continue to do so, there can be no assurances that circumstances will not change in the future that could affect our ability or decisions to pay dividends.
In August 2022, the Board of Directors approved a $1.25 billion share repurchase program, effective through fiscal year 2025. During the year ended June 30, 2023, we repurchased $550.2 million of our common stock at an average price of $37.59 per share. In the prior year, we repurchased $550.3 million of our common stock at an average price of $23.84 per share. Our share repurchase program has remaining authorization of $700.0 million which is effective through fiscal year 2025.
Share repurchases may be effectuated through open market transactions, some of which may be effectuated under SEC Rule 10b5-1. The Company may cancel, suspend, or extend the time period for the purchase of shares at any time. Any repurchases will be funded primarily through available cash and cash from operations. Although we may continue to repurchase shares, there is no assurance that we will purchase up to the full Board authorization.
The following table summarizes our shares outstanding, shares repurchased, and annual dividends per share:
(in 000s, except per share amounts)
Year ended
June 30, 2023
Year ended
June 30, 2022
Two months ended
June 30, 2021
(Transition Period)
Year ended
April 30, 2021
Year ended
April 30, 2020
Shares outstanding146,150 159,930 181,813 181,466 192,475 
Shares repurchased14,635 23,085 — 11,55110,130
Dividends declared per share$1.16 $1.08 $0.27 $1.04 $1.04 
    Capital Investment. Capital expenditures totaled $69.7 million and $62.0 million for the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our capital expenditures relate primarily to recurring improvements to retail offices, as well as investments in computers, software and related assets. In addition to our capital expenditures, we also made payments to acquire businesses. We acquired franchise and competitor businesses totaling $48.2 million and $35.9 million during the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. See Item 8, note 6 for additional information on our acquisitions.
Contractual Obligations. We are party to many contractual obligations involving commitments to make payments to third parties, which impact our short-term and long-term liquidity and capital resource needs. Our contractual obligations primarily consist of operating leases, contingent acquisition payments, and long-term debt and related interest payments. See Item 8, note 7, 10, and 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
    FINANCING RESOURCES – Our CLOC has capacity up to $1.5 billion and is scheduled to expire in June 2026. Proceeds under the CLOC may be used for working capital needs or for other general corporate purposes. We were in compliance with our CLOC covenants as of June 30, 2023. As of June 30, 2023, amounts available to borrow under the CLOC were not limited by the debt-to-EBITDA covenant. We had no balance outstanding under our CLOC as of June 30, 2023.
    See Item 8, note 7 to the consolidated financial statements for discussion of our CLOC and Senior Notes.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


The following table provides ratings for debt issued by Block Financial LLC (Block Financial) as of June 30, 2023 and 2022:
As ofJune 30, 2023June 30, 2022
Short-termLong-termOutlookShort-termLong-termOutlook
Moody'sP-3Baa3PositiveP-3Baa3Stable
S&PA-2BBBStableA-2BBBStable
CASH AND OTHER ASSETS – As of June 30, 2023, we held cash and cash equivalents, excluding restricted amounts, of $987.0 million, including $293.4 million held by our foreign subsidiaries.
Foreign Operations. Seasonal borrowing needs of our Canadian operations are typically funded by our U.S. operations. To mitigate foreign currency risk, we sometimes enter into foreign exchange forward contracts. There were no forward contracts outstanding as of June 30, 2023.
We do not currently intend to repatriate non-borrowed funds held by our foreign subsidiaries in a manner that would trigger a tax liability.
The impact of changes in foreign exchange rates during the period on our international cash balances resulted in a decrease of $4.9 million and $8.1 million during the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
SUMMARIZED GUARANTOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Block Financial is a 100% owned indirect subsidiary of H&R Block, Inc. Block Financial is the Issuer and H&R Block, Inc. is the full and unconditional Guarantor of our Senior Notes, CLOC and other indebtedness issued from time to time.
The following table presents summarized financial information for H&R Block, Inc. (Guarantor) and Block Financial (Issuer) on a combined basis after intercompany eliminations and excludes investments in and equity earnings in non-guarantor subsidiaries.
SUMMARIZED BALANCE SHEET(in 000s)
As of June 30, 2023GUARANTOR AND ISSUER
Current assets$37,407 
Noncurrent assets1,725,234 
Current liabilities78,259 
Noncurrent liabilities1,494,010 
SUMMARIZED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS(in 000s)
Year ended June 30, 2023GUARANTOR AND ISSUER
Total revenues$160,236 
Income from continuing operations before income taxes40,285 
Net income from continuing operations31,713 
Net income23,613 
The table above reflects $1.7 billion of non-current intercompany receivables due to the Issuer from non-guarantor subsidiaries.

H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
We consider the estimates discussed below to be critical to understanding our financial statements, as they require the use of significant judgment and estimation in order to measure, at a specific point in time, matters that are inherently uncertain. Specific methods and assumptions for these critical accounting estimates are described in the following paragraphs. We have reviewed and discussed each of these estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors. For all of these estimates, we caution that future events rarely develop precisely as forecasted and estimates routinely require adjustment and may require material adjustment.
See Item 8, note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for discussion of our significant accounting policies.
LITIGATION AND OTHER RELATED CONTINGENCIES
Nature of Estimates Required. We accrue liabilities related to certain legal matters for which we believe it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of such loss can be reasonably estimated. Assessing the likely outcome of pending or threatened litigation or other related loss contingencies, including the amount of potential loss, if any, is highly subjective. 
Assumptions and Approach Used. We are subject to pending or threatened litigation and other related loss contingencies, which are described in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements. It is our policy to routinely assess the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes related to legal matters, as well as ranges of probable losses. A determination of the amount of the liability required to be accrued, if any, for these contingencies is made after analysis of each known issue and an analysis of historical experience. In cases where we have concluded that a loss is only reasonably possible or remote, or is not reasonably estimable, no liability is accrued.
Sensitivity of Estimate to Change. It is reasonably possible that pending or future litigation and other related loss contingencies may vary from the amounts accrued. Our estimate of the aggregate range of reasonably possible losses includes (1) matters where a liability has been accrued and there is a reasonably possible loss in excess of the amount accrued for that liability, and (2) matters where a liability has not been accrued but we believe a loss is reasonably possible. This aggregate range represents only those losses as to which we are currently able to estimate a reasonably possible loss or range of loss. It does not represent our maximum loss exposure. As of June 30, 2023, we believe the estimate of the aggregate range of reasonably possible losses in excess of amounts accrued, where the range of loss can be estimated, was not material.
However, our judgments on whether a loss is probable, reasonably possible, or remote, and our estimates of probable loss amounts may differ from actual results due to difficulties in predicting changes in or interpretations of, laws, predicting the outcome of court trials, arbitration hearings, settlement discussions and related activity, predicting the outcome of class certification actions, and numerous other uncertainties. Due to the number of claims which are periodically asserted against us, and the magnitude of damages sought in those claims, actual losses in the future may significantly differ from our current estimates.
Our accrued liabilities for litigation and other related contingencies are disclosed in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
INCOME TAXESUNCERTAIN TAX POSITIONS
Nature of Estimates Required. The income tax laws of jurisdictions in which we operate are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and applicable government taxing authorities. Income tax returns filed by us are based on our interpretation of these rules. The amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities, which may result in proposed assessments, including interest or penalties. We accrue a liability for unrecognized tax benefits arising from uncertain tax positions reflecting our judgment as to the ultimate resolution of the applicable issues.
Assumptions and Approach Used. Differences between a tax position taken or expected to be taken in our tax returns and the amount of benefit recorded in our financial statements result in unrecognized tax benefits. Unrecognized tax benefits are recorded in the balance sheet as either a liability or reductions to recorded tax assets as applicable. Our uncertain tax positions arise from items such as apportionment of income for state purposes, transfer pricing, and the deductibility of intercompany transactions. We evaluate each uncertain tax
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


position based on its technical merits. For each position, we consider all applicable information including relevant tax laws, the taxing authorities' potential position, our tax return position, and the possible settlement outcomes to determine the amount of liability to record. In making this determination, we assume the tax authority has all relevant information at its disposal.
Sensitivity of Estimate to Change. Our assessment of the technical merits and measurement of tax benefits associated with uncertain tax positions is subject to a high degree of judgment and estimation. Actual results may differ from our current judgments due to a variety of factors, including changes in law, interpretations of law by taxing authorities that differ from our assessments, changes in the jurisdictions in which we operate and results of routine tax examinations. We believe we have adequately provided for any reasonably foreseeable outcomes related to these matters. However, our future results may include favorable or unfavorable adjustments to our estimated tax liabilities in the period the assessments are made or resolved, or when statutes of limitation on potential assessments expire. As a result, our effective tax rate may fluctuate on a quarterly basis.
A schedule of changes in our uncertain tax positions during the last three years is included in Item 8, note 9 to the consolidated financial statements.
GOODWILL
Nature of Estimates Required. We test goodwill for impairment annually in the third quarter or more frequently if events occur or circumstances change which would, more likely than not, reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. We first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If, based on a review of qualitative factors, it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a quantitative analysis. Our goodwill impairment analysis utilizes both income and market approaches, which includes revenue and expense forecasts, changes in working capital and selection of a discount rate, all of which are highly subjective. 
Assumptions and Approach Used. Our goodwill impairment analysis is performed at the reporting unit level. Our valuation methods include a discounted cash flow model for the income approach and the guideline public company and market capitalization methods for the market approach. The income approach requires significant management judgment with respect to revenue and expense forecasts, anticipated changes in working capital and selection of an appropriate discount rate. Changes in projections or assumptions could materially affect our estimate of reporting unit fair values. The use of different assumptions could increase or decrease estimated discounted future operating cash flows and could affect our conclusion regarding the existence or amount of potential impairment.
Sensitivity of Estimate to Change. Estimates of fair value may be adversely impacted by declining economic conditions and changes in the industries and markets in which we operate. Additionally, if future operating results of our reporting units are below our current modeled expectations, fair value estimates may decline. Any of these factors could result in future impairments, and those impairments could be significant.
A schedule of changes in our goodwill balances, including any impairment charges, is included in Item 8, note 6 to the consolidated financial statements.
NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
See Item 8, note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for any recently issued accounting pronouncements.
REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
The federal government, various state, local, provincial and foreign governments, and some self-regulatory organizations have enacted statutes and ordinances, or adopted rules and regulations, regulating many aspects of our business. These aspects include, but are not limited to, commercial income tax return preparation, income tax courses, the electronic filing of income tax returns, the offering of RTs, privacy and data security, consumer protection, marketing and advertising, franchising, antitrust and competition, sales methods, and financial services and products. We work to comply with those laws that are applicable to us or our services or products, and we continue to monitor developments in the regulatory environment in which we operate. See further discussion of these items in our Item 1A. Risk Factors under "Legal and Regulatory Risks" of this Form 10-K.
H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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As previously disclosed, in 2017 the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) published its final rule regulating certain consumer credit products (Payday Rule), which the CFPB later limited by removing the mandatory underwriting provisions. Certain limited provisions of the Payday Rule became effective in 2018, but most provisions were scheduled to go into effect in 2019. Litigation in a federal district court in Texas had stayed that effective date, but on August 31, 2021 the judge in that litigation ruled in favor of the CFPB. The plaintiffs appealed, and, on October 14, 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit extended the compliance deadline until after the appeal is resolved. On October 19, 2022, the appellate court found that the funding mechanism for the CFPB was unconstitutional and vacated the Payday Rule. On November 14, 2022, the CFPB filed a petition for review with the United States Supreme Court, which the Supreme Court granted on February 27, 2023.
We are unsure whether, when, or in what form the Payday Rule will go into effect. Though we do not currently expect the Payday Rule to have a material adverse impact on Emerald AdvanceSM, our business, or our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, we will continue to monitor and analyze the potential impact of any further developments on the Company.
From time to time, we receive inquiries from governmental authorities regarding the applicability of laws to our services and products and other matters relating to our business. We cannot predict what effect future laws, changes in interpretations of existing laws or the results of future governmental inquiries with respect to services and products or other matters relating to our business may have on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We have received certain governmental inquiries related to the IRS Free File Program and our DIY tax preparation services. We may also be subject to future inquiries or other proceedings regarding these programs or other aspects of our business. Regulatory inquiries may result in us incurring additional expense, diversion of management's attention, adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. See additional discussion of legal matters in Item 8, note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.
NON-GAAP FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. Because these measures are not measures of financial performance under GAAP and are susceptible to varying calculations, they may not be comparable to similarly titled measures for other companies.
We consider our non-GAAP financial measures to be performance measures and a useful metric for management and investors to evaluate and compare the ongoing operating performance of our business. We make adjustments for certain non-GAAP financial measures related to amortization of intangibles from acquisitions and goodwill impairments. We may consider whether other significant items that arise in the future should be excluded from our non-GAAP financial measures.
We measure the performance of our business using a variety of metrics, including earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) from continuing operations, adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations, adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations, free cash flow and free cash flow yield. We also use EBITDA from continuing operations and pretax income of continuing operations, each subject to permitted adjustments, as performance metrics in incentive compensation calculations for our employees.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


The following is a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA from continuing operations, which is a non-GAAP financial measure:
(in 000s)
Year endedJune 30, 2023June 30, 2022
Net income - as reported$553,700 $553,674 
Discontinued operations, net8,100 6,972 
Net income from continuing operations - as reported561,800 560,646 
Add back:
Income taxes149,412 98,423 
Interest expense72,978 88,282 
Depreciation and amortization130,501 142,178 
352,891 328,883 
EBITDA from continuing operations$914,691 $889,529 
The following is a reconciliation of our results from continuing operations to our adjusted results from continuing operations, which are non-GAAP financial measures:
(in 000s, except per share amounts)
Year endedJune 30, 2023June 30, 2022
Net income from continuing operations - as reported$561,800 $560,646 
Adjustments:
Amortization of intangibles related to acquisitions (pretax)51,411 56,292 
Tax effect of adjustments(1)
(10,797)(13,358)
Adjusted net income from continuing operations$602,414 $603,580 
Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations - as reported$3.56 $3.26 
Adjustments, net of tax0.26 0.25 
Adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations$3.82 $3.51 
(1) The tax effect of adjustments is the difference between the tax provision calculation on a GAAP basis and on an adjusted non-GAAP basis.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
INTEREST RATE RISK
GENERAL – We have a formal investment policy that strives to minimize the market risk exposure of our cash equivalents, which are primarily affected by credit quality and movements in interest rates. The guidelines in our investment policy focus on managing liquidity and preserving principal and earnings.
Our cash equivalents are primarily held for liquidity purposes and are comprised of high quality, short-term investments, including money market funds and U.S. Treasuries. Because our cash and cash equivalents have a short maturity, our portfolio's market value is relatively insensitive to interest rate changes.
Interest expense on our CLOC borrowings is determined based on short-term interest rates. As our CLOC borrowings are generally seasonal, interest rate risk typically increases during the months of November through March. We had no outstanding balance on our CLOC as of June 30, 2023.
Our long-term debt as of June 30, 2023, consists primarily of fixed-rate Senior Notes; therefore, a change in interest rates would have no impact on consolidated pretax earnings until these notes mature or are refinanced. The interest we pay on our Senior Notes is fixed and is subject to adjustment based upon our credit ratings. See Item 8, note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE RISK
Our operations in international markets are exposed to movements in currency exchange rates. The currencies primarily involved are the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar. We translate revenues and expenses related to these operations at the average of exchange rates in effect during the period. Assets and liabilities of foreign
H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates at the end of the year. Translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component of other comprehensive income in stockholders' equity. Translation of financial results into U.S. dollars does not presently materially affect, and has not historically materially affected, our consolidated financial results, although such changes do affect the year-to-year comparability of the operating results in U.S. dollars of our international businesses. The impact of changes in foreign exchange rates during the period on our international cash balances resulted in a decrease of $4.9 million and $8.1 million during the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We estimate a 10% change in foreign exchange rates by itself would impact consolidated pretax income for the years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 by $3.8 million and $2.8 million, respectively, and cash balances, excluding restricted balances, as of June 30, 2023 and 2022 by $13.0 million and $18.5 million, respectively.
We generally use foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate foreign currency exchange rate risk for loans we advance to our Canadian operations. We had no forward contracts outstanding at June 30, 2023 or 2022.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
DISCUSSION OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
H&R Block's management is responsible for the integrity and objectivity of the information contained in this document. Management is responsible for the consistency of reporting this information and for ensuring that accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. are properly applied. In discharging this responsibility, management maintains an extensive program of internal audits and requires members of management to certify financial information within their scope of management. Our system of internal control over financial reporting also includes formal policies and procedures, including a Code of Business Ethics and Conduct that reinforces our commitment to ethical business conduct and is designed to encourage our employees and directors to act with high standards of integrity in all that they do.
The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, composed solely of independent outside directors, meets periodically with management, the independent auditor and the Vice President, Audit Services (our chief internal auditor) to review matters relating to our financial statements, internal audit activities, internal accounting controls and non-audit services provided by the independent auditors. The independent auditor and the Vice President, Audit Services have full access to the Audit Committee and meet with the committee, both with and without management present, to discuss the scope and results of their audits, including internal controls and financial matters.
Deloitte & Touche LLP audited our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the two months ended June 30, 2021 (Transition Period), and for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2021. The audits were conducted in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).
MANAGEMENT'S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 12a-15(f). Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria established in "Internal Control - Integrated Framework" issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), using the 2013 framework, as of June 30, 2023.
Based on our assessment, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that as of June 30, 2023, the Company's internal control over financial reporting was effective based on the criteria set forth by COSO, using the 2013 framework. The Company's external auditor, Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, has issued an audit report on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
/s/ Jeffrey J. Jones II/s/ Tony G. Bowen
Jeffrey J. Jones IITony G. Bowen
President and Chief Executive OfficerChief Financial Officer

H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of H&R Block, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of H&R Block, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of June 30, 2023, and June 30, 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders' equity, and cash flows, for the years ended June 30, 2023, and June 30, 2022, the two months ended June 30, 2021 (Transition Period) and the year ended April 30, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of June 30, 2023, and June 30, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years ended June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022, the two months ended June 30, 2021 (Transition Period) and the year ended April 30, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated August 17, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Income Taxes - Uncertain Tax Positions - Refer to Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company operates in multiple income tax jurisdictions both within the United States and internationally. Accordingly, management must determine the appropriate allocation of income to each of these jurisdictions based on transfer pricing analyses of comparable companies and predictions of future economic conditions. Transfer pricing terms and conditions may be scrutinized by local tax authorities during an audit and any resulting changes may impact the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates. The Company accrues a liability for unrecognized tax benefits arising from uncertain tax positions reflecting their judgment as to the ultimate resolution of the applicable issues. For each position, management considers all applicable information including relevant tax laws, the taxing authorities' potential position, management’s tax return position, and the
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


possible settlement outcomes to determine the amount of liability to record. The Company’s unrecognized tax benefits as of June 30, 2023, were $240 million.
We identified the Company’s determination of uncertain tax positions measured in accordance with the Company’s transfer pricing policies as a critical audit matter because of the significant judgment in the application of the tax law in applying the arm’s length standard to intercompany transactions and scrutiny by local tax authorities. The significant level of judgment increases the uncertainty in evaluating the valuation of tax balances, including any uncertain tax positions that relate to the Company’s transfer pricing. As a result, we utilized a high degree of auditor judgment and increased the extent of work performed, including involving our income tax specialists to evaluate whether management’s judgments in interpreting and applying tax laws were appropriate.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the Company’s uncertain tax positions for transfer pricing included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s evaluation and determination of uncertain tax positions. This evaluation includes management’s assessment of tax positions taken by the Company on its tax returns, including transfer pricing terms and conditions, and the related recorded amounts for uncertain tax positions
With the assistance of our income tax specialists, we evaluated the Company’s transfer pricing methodologies and performed the following:
Evaluated the appropriateness of management’s application of jurisdictional tax regulations in applying the arm’s length standard to intercompany transactions.
Evaluated the application of the transfer pricing method to transactions subject to transfer pricing.
Tested the application of the transfer pricing policies by legal entity through an independent calculation.
Evaluated management’s approach to identifying uncertain tax positions related to changes in the transfer pricing terms and conditions and tested the calculation of the tax positions at the individual legal entity level and at the consolidated level.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Kansas City, Missouri
August 17, 2023

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2007.


H&R Block, Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of H&R Block, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of H&R Block, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of June 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of June 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended June 30, 2023, of the Company and our report dated August 17, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Kansas City, Missouri
August 17, 2023

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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in 000s, except per share amounts)
Year Ended
June 30, 2023
Year Ended
June 30, 2022
Two Months Ended
June 30, 2021
(Transition Period)
Year Ended
April 30, 2021
REVENUES:
Service revenues$3,156,921 $3,134,686 $427,575 $3,067,223 
Royalty, product and other revenues315,264 328,584 38,531 346,764 
3,472,185 3,463,270 466,106 3,413,987 
OPERATING EXPENSES:
Costs of revenues1,923,452 1,881,262 232,763 1,842,092 
Selling, general and administrative800,035 837,111 98,988 802,268 
Total operating expenses2,723,487 2,718,373 331,751 2,644,360 
Other income (expense), net35,492 2,454 672 5,979 
Interest expense on borrowings(72,978)(88,282)(14,032)(106,870)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes711,212 659,069 120,995 668,736 
Income taxes149,412 98,423 29,876 78,524 
Net income from continuing operations561,800 560,646 91,119 590,212 
Net loss from discontinued operations, net of tax benefits of $2,423, $2,093, $451 and $3,883
(8,100)(6,972)(1,509)(6,421)
NET INCOME$553,700 $553,674 $89,610 $583,791 
BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE:
Continuing operations$3.63 $3.31 $0.50 $3.15 
Discontinued operations(0.05)(0.04)(0.01)(0.04)
Consolidated$3.58 $3.27 $0.49 $3.11 
DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE:
Continuing operations$3.56 $3.26 $0.49 $3.11 
Discontinued operations(0.05)(0.04)(0.01)(0.03)
Consolidated$3.51 $3.22 $0.48 $3.08 
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME:
Net income$553,700 $553,674 $89,610 $583,791 
Change in foreign currency translation adjustments(15,454)(21,733)(4,698)56,362 
Other comprehensive income (loss)(15,454)(21,733)(4,698)56,362 
Comprehensive income$538,246 $531,941 $84,912 $640,153 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS(in 000s, except share and per share amounts)
As ofJune 30, 2023June 30, 2022
ASSETS
Cash and cash equivalents$986,975 $885,015 
Cash and cash equivalents - restricted28,341 165,698 
Receivables, less allowance for credit losses of $55,502 and $65,351
59,987 58,447 
Income taxes receivable35,910 202,838 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets76,273 72,460 
Total current assets1,187,486 1,384,458 
Property and equipment, at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization of $846,177 and $857,468
130,015 123,912 
Operating lease right of use asset438,299 427,783 
Intangible assets, net277,043 309,644 
Goodwill775,453 760,401 
Deferred tax assets and income taxes receivable211,391 208,948 
Other noncurrent assets52,571 54,012 
Total assets$3,072,258 $3,269,158 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$159,901 $160,929 
Accrued salaries, wages and payroll taxes95,154 154,764 
Accrued income taxes and reserves for uncertain tax positions271,800 280,115 
Operating lease liabilities205,391 206,898 
Deferred revenue and other current liabilities206,536 196,107 
Total current liabilities938,782 998,813 
Long-term debt1,488,974 1,486,876 
Deferred tax liabilities and reserves for uncertain tax positions264,567 226,362 
Operating lease liabilities240,543 228,820 
Deferred revenue and other noncurrent liabilities107,328 116,656 
Total liabilities3,040,194 3,057,527 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY:
Common stock, no par, stated value $.01 per share, 800,000,000 shares authorized, shares issued of 178,935,578 and 193,571,309
1,789 1,936 
Additional paid-in capital770,376 772,182 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(37,099)(21,645)
Retained earnings (deficit)(48,677)120,405 
Less treasury shares, at cost, of 32,785,658 and 33,640,988
(654,325)(661,247)
Total stockholders' equity32,064 211,631 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$3,072,258 $3,269,158 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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2023 Form 10-K | H&R Block, Inc.


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS(in 000s)
Year Ended
June 30, 2023
Year Ended
June 30, 2022
Two Months Ended
June 30, 2021
(Transition Period)
Year Ended
April 30, 2021
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net income$553,700 $553,674 $89,610 $583,791 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization130,501 142,178 24,586 156,852 
Provision for credit losses52,290 66,807 4,617 73,451 
Deferred taxes49,579 (53,352)22,926 (22,583)
Stock-based compensation31,326 34,252 4,700 28,271 
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:
Receivables(57,244)(37,889)108,470 (150,933)
Prepaid expenses, other current and noncurrent assets(7,011)(1,944)26,753 (49,498)
Accounts payable, accrued expenses, salaries, wages and payroll taxes(67,627)(19,645)(186,754)150,635 
Deferred revenue, other current and noncurrent liabilities(4,773)7,342 (15,809)(1,160)
Income tax receivables, accrued income taxes and income tax reserves144,164 118,713 (43,476)(138,152)
Other, net(3,064)(1,599)(797)(4,746)
Net cash provided by operating activities821,841 808,537 34,826 625,928 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Capital expenditures(69,698)(61,955)(5,188)(52,792)
Payments made for business acquisitions, net of cash acquired(48,246)(35,920)(846)(15,576)
Franchise loans funded(21,633)(18,467)(135)(26,917)
Payments from franchisees27,350 30,899 8,634 41,215 
Other, net10,838 8,902 1,227 8,547 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(101,389)(76,541)3,692 (45,523)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Repayments of line of credit borrowings(970,000)(705,000) (3,275,000)
Proceeds from line of credit borrowings970,000 705,000  1,275,000 
Repayments of long-term debt (500,000) (650,000)
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt  494,435 647,965 
Dividends paid(177,925)(186,476) (195,068)
Repurchase of common stock, including shares surrendered(568,952)(563,174)(4,633)(191,294)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options3,383 6,334 308 2,140 
Other, net(7,498)(14,030)(5,584)(22,566)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(750,992)(1,257,346)484,526 (2,408,823)
Effects of exchange rate changes on cash(4,857)(8,101)(1,800)18,318 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, including restricted balances(35,397)(533,451)521,244 (1,810,100)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of the period1,050,713 1,584,164 1,062,920 2,873,020 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of the period$1,015,316 $1,050,713 $1,584,164 $1,062,920 
SUPPLEMENTARY CASH FLOW DATA:
Income taxes paid (received), net$(45,539)$31,689 $52,149 $236,459 
Interest paid on borrowings69,554 81,960 14,317 103,855 
Accrued additions to property and equipment2,238 4,315 2,085 1,643 
Accrued dividends payable to common shareholders42,953 43,093 48,998  
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY(amounts in 000s, except per share amounts)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)(1)
Retained
Earnings
(Deficit)
Treasury StockTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances as of May 1, 2020228,207 $2,282 $775,387 $(51,576)$42,965 (35,731)$(698,017)$71,041 
Net income— — — — 583,791 — — 583,791 
Other comprehensive income— — — 56,362 — — — 56,362 
Stock-based compensation— — 26,138 — — — — 26,138 
Stock-based awards exercised or vested— — (11,417)— (1,900)755 14,748 1,431 
Acquisition of treasury shares(2)
— — — — — (214)(3,081)(3,081)
Repurchase and retirement of common shares(11,551)(115)(6,816)— (181,282)— — (188,213)
Cash dividends declared - $1.04 per share
— — — — (195,068)— — (195,068)
Balances as of April 30, 2021216,656 $2,167 $783,292 $4,786 $248,506 (35,190)$(686,350)$352,401 
Net income— — — — 89,610 — — 89,610 
Other comprehensive loss— — — (4,698)— — — (4,698)
Stock-based compensation— — 4,285 — — — — 4,285 
Stock-based awards exercised or vested— — (8,112)— (2,424)545 10,627 91 
Acquisition of treasury shares(2)
— — — — — (197)(4,633)(4,633)
Cash dividends declared - $0.27 per share
— — — — (48,998)— — (48,998)
Balances as of June 30, 2021216,656 $2,167 $779,465